Category Archives for Primer

Agree the PRINCE2 Tailoring requirements

Agree the PRINCE2 Tailoring requirements

The project manager may need to tailor how the project is directed and managed in order to recognize internal and external factors that affects the way in which the project is delivered.

Any deviations from the organizations standard project management approach must be documented and agreed.

Agree the PRINCE2 Tailoring requirements

There are two management products used as an input to this activity triggered by the authority to initiate a project.

The main output here is the creation of part of the project controls, in this case driven by the tailoring requirements.

PRINCE2 recommends the following tailoring actions:

  • Review the project brief to understand the outline tailoring approach, if defined
  • Seek lessons from previous similar projects, corporate, programme management or the customer, and external organizations related to how tailoring was applied
  • Define the tailoring as part of the PID
  • Consult with project assurance to check that any proposed tailoring will meet the needs of the project board and/or corporate, programme management or the customer
  • Seek a project board approval for any tailoring, although they may prefer to review it later as part of the PID
  • The following diagram lays out the roles and responsibilities for agreeing the tailoring requirements:

https://www.projex.com/course/prince2-masterclass-foundation-practitioner/

PRINCE2

Why it may be important to pass your PRINCE2 Practitioner Exam first time and what is the pain of failure?

Why it may be important to pass your PRINCE2 Practitioner Exam first time and what is the pain of failure?

Timing and critical mass is key here. Like any test exam, you need to “peak” at the right time. Failure and retakes suck the life out of any student.

Fails and retakes are more than double the effort and pain. Not to mention low self-esteem.

Exam failure and retakes are like herding cats – balancing the time needed to properly re-learn/improve, against the risk of forgetting small details from your original training after the passage of time.

Far Better To Peak and Pass!

How long has it been since you took an important exam? School or university/college?

Picture this. The examiner advises you in writing that you were not successful. And what if your work colleagues DID pass first time. How does that make you FEEL?

Telling your family is also an embarrassment. You put in time, effort, passion and inconvenience – yet you still failed.

Passing first time provides you with office bragging rights.

There is NO second chance – re-takes make you feel second-rate.

Don’t let “if only I had been better prepared” get in the way of First Time Success. You need to proportion your effort 40% to learn and apply the PRINCE2 Method, and 60% on exam familiarity and passing technique. My PRINCE2 Primer blends that exact ratio.

You need to get inside the head of the examiner. I have been a PRINCE2 examiner, marked thousands of papers and set questions for the past two decades. I know the pressure points that can cause failure, and I will show YOU how to side-step them.

The cost or preparing and taking the exams is just chump-change compared to the cost of failure and lost career opportunities.

Don’t delay – grab my PRINCE2 Foundation and Practitioner Primer HERE!

PRINCE2

What does PRINCE2 allow you to HAVE?

What does PRINCE2 allow you to HAVE?

It’s no accident that project managers earn large salaries (well, good ones do…), they are the lynch pin of change and business success. If not done right, the project manager can end up being the whipping post. Senior Managers are adept at placing the blame on the project manager and the success on themselves.

Make no mistake, projects are just a means to an end – business benefits of whatever flavour are the real driver behind any change initiative.

PRINCE2 gives back control to the project manager and shared responsibility in success.

PRINCE2 won’t give you charisma – (something FAR more valuable than that) – it will give you a solid track record and reputation of delivering successful business outcomes.

You’ll be the Go-to Guy or Gal. The Great and The Good will beat a path to your door.

To the frustrated outsider, they will not be able to see how you do it because the PRINCE2 framework will be hiding in plain sight – yet you can get the job done time and again.

Now, you may already have a project management qualification, and that’s fine, but can you APPLY it? That’s where PRINCE2 comes in. You’ve got the Yin but you need the Yang

PRINCE2 gives you a consistent methodology for delivering project success. All projects are different, yet you seem to have the knack to take anything that management throws you – no matter what their project size, complexity, risk, specialism, or industry.

Master PRINCE2 in the next 7 days HERE!

PRINCE2

 

What does PRINCE2 allow you to DO?

What does PRINCE2 allow you to DO?

A project manager, like any professional, is there to manage change and their bag of tricks consists of being able to plan manage and control. Although they are all vital, it is the “manage and control” part where things go awry.

Unlike managing a department or a service (operational management), projects are temporary, once they have bought about the change, they are disbanded. Job Done. Or not.

So a new project has just been thrown at you.

You know all the “stuff” – how to knock up a plan, come up with estimates, manage risks, make sure the products you create are “quality”, manage change, take corrective action, report progress, and so on

So why do 80% of projects fail in some way – from “the customer is not happy” to an outright kamikaze foul-up?

The answer is that ALL project managers need a “project framework” for success. The same way that Gordon Ramsay knows that a successful restaurant needs a structure – food prep and service teams, organized kitchen, right menu, hygiene and atmosphere.

PRINCE2 provides that framework for projects. It sets up success from the get-go. Sure, you’ve got to understand it, how to apply it and tailor it to each specific project, but it provides each project manager with a “system for success”.

The PRINCE2 Principles set out set out the bedrock APPROACH, The PRINCE2 Processes tell you WHAT to do and WHEN, and the PRINCE2 Themes provide the project manager with “Best in Class” practices for aspects such as risk and quality – the HOW.

But there’s more. PRINCE2 shows you the most powerful planning technique on the planet as well as how to “bake-in” quality from the outset.

The Four Mad Dogs of time, cost, quality and scope trying pulling you in all directions – are tamed.

Become a PRINCE2 Practitioner in 2 weeks from now HERE!

PRINCE2

PRINCE2 Risk Theme Changes

PRINCE2 Risk Theme Changes

Risks bring uncertainty that may impact a project’s objectives, and this uncertainty may arise from events both inside and outside the organization.

An example here is the risk that an organisation can’t gain common agreement for the scope of the project, possibly risk in timescales or resources.

The purpose of the PRINCE2 Risk Theme is to identify, assess and control uncertainty and, as a result, improve the ability of the project to succeed.

PRINCE2 defines risk as an uncertain event or set of events that, should it occur, will influence the achievement of objectives. A risk is measured by a combination of the probability of a perceived threat or opportunity occurring, and the magnitude of its impact on objectives.

Risk management is defined as the systematic application of principles, approaches and process is to the tasks of identifying and assessing risks, planning and implementing risk responses and communicating risk management activities with stakeholders.

For risk management to be effective, the following aspects need to be considered:

  • Risks that might affect the project achieving its objectives needs to be identified, captured and described
  • Each risk must be assessed so that its probability, impact and timing (proximity) so that it can be prioritized
  • The overall risk exposure needs to be kept under review, together with the impact of risk on the overall business justification for the project
  • Responses to each risk needs to be planned, and assigned to people to action and own
  • Risk responses must be implemented, monitors and controlled
  • Throughout the project, information about risks must be communicative both within the project and to key stakeholders

Risk exposure is the extent of risk borne by the organization at the time.

Effective risk management provides confidence that the project can meet its objectives while keeping the business justification valid. Risk management supports decision-making by ensuring that the project team understand not only individual risks, but also the overall risk exposure that exists at a particular time.

PRINCE2 Risk Management Approach

This replaces the older “risk management strategy” document. However, the composition of the risk management approach remains the same as the risk management strategy document.

The risk management approach describes how risk will be managed on the project. This includes the specific process is, procedures, techniques, standards and responsibilities to be applied.

The risk management approach is derived from the project brief, business case, and where relevant, any corporate, programme management or customer risk management guides, strategies or policies

The risk management approach format may include a standalone document, a section of the PID, or an entry in a project management tool.

PRINCE2 requirements for risk management

As an absolute minimum, a PRINCE2 project must:

  • Define and its risk management approach covering:
  • How risks are identified and assessed
  • How risk management responses are planned and implemented
  • How the management of risk is communicated throughout the project life cycle
  • Assess whether identified risks might have a material impact on the business justification of the project. This aligns with the PRINCE2 Principle of continued business justification
  • The roles and responsibilities for risk management must be defined. This aligns with the PRINCE2 Principle defined roles and responsibilities
  • Some form of risk register must be maintained identifying risks along with decisions related to their analysis, management and review
  • Project risks must be identified, assessed, managed and reviewed throughout the project lifecycle
  • Lessons must be used to inform risk identification and management. This aligns with the PRINCE2 Principle of learn from experience

PRINCE2 risk management products

PRINCE2 requires that two products are produced and maintained:

Risk management approach

This describes how risk will be managed on the project and includes the specific process is, procedures, techniques, standards and responsibilities to be applied.

The risk management approach should be reviewed and possibly updated at the end of each management stage. It also defines how and when the risk register is reviewed and updated.

Risk register

This provides a record of all identified risks relating to the project, including their status and history. The risk register is used to capture and maintain information on all the identified threats and opportunities relating to the project.

The risk management approach and the risk register are created during the initiating a project process.

PRINCE2 does not prescribe a specific or detailed approach to risk management. Any approach that meets the requirements described, can be seen to be following PRINCE2.

CLICK Below to become a PRINCE2 Practitioner NOW

Planning a PRINCE2 Planned Closure

Planning a PRINCE2 Planned Closure

In this short article, I shall describe how the PRINCE2 Method assists planned closure for your project. I am assuming that you realize that some projects need to be shut down early or prematurely, and I will describe that situation in a later article.

Planning a PRINCE2 Planned Closure
When the project manager identifies at the project end is approaching during the end of the last stage, Then the closing a project process is triggered, and the “Prepare planned closure” activity is started.

This is an unfortunate choice of activity name as shutting the project down in a controlled manner involves a lot more than just planning the closure – Important though that planning is.

Broadly, Shutting the project down involves two broad activities:

  • Making sure the project products or deliverables are indeed complete
  • Checking the signups and acceptances

Making sure your PRINCE2 Products have been finished

Before the project manager states that they have finished a project, they must first check whether everything is done or as a minimum, nearly done.

With a small project, you may know this anyway if you have been closely involved with the team, but even then, sometimes a quick check does no harm at all to make sure that you have not overlooked anything.

As I said above, the project manager will want to check that the project meets the Acceptance Criteria laid down within the Project Product Description

There are broadly three aspects that you will want to check to ensure that you really have finished your project.

As I have advised elsewhere, you really should have been using the PRINCE2 powerful progress measuring tool, the Product Checklist. If so, then you can easily see if the sign-offs are done for most of the project deliverables or products.

The Product Checklist will have been created when carrying out the planning at both the project and stage levels.

The Checkpoint Reports are the progress reports emanating from team managers providing progress advice on the specialist products.

At the end of the project, the project manager will want to inspect the latest checkpoint reports to see how specialist product creation is progressing.

The status information for products, which is part of the configuration management or version controlled information, should be inspected to confirm that the status of all but the final few products is set to “complete”, or “approved”.

It may be that further approval is needed on some or all products – for example some form of user acceptance or operational management sign off.

Reviewing for sign-offs and acceptances

The completion check is not complete unless you are sure that any necessary acceptances and handovers have been done properly.

Very often, you will not usually get those acceptance is now, but check that none have been left out when things may have been signed off. It may be that such products may have already been taken into operational use, and that this has been occurring throughout the project.

The reason for this is that not all projects are “big bang” with everything delivered in one hit at project end.

PRINCE2 Acceptances and Handovers

When checking through acceptances and handovers, you may need to conserver the following points:

Legal sign-offs
As an example, you may need these when the company lawyers approve key documentation

External sign-offs
These may include other organizations signing to say that they agree to the new business interfaces. Some may have legal implications as well, such as signups from building inspectors that certify the structure is safe off to the building works have been carried out.

Supplier sign-offs
You may need to manage and others from suppliers. This may be, as in my previous example, the formal handing over of a building from the development company to the customer organization. It may be that a sign-off of satisfactorily completed work, showing that payment to the supplier is now due.

Organizational Handovers
Examples of this include a development team handing a Computer System over to the computer operations department, or passing responsibility for a retail store back to the store manager off to the project team has finished the brand change, refitting and restocking work.

The need for formal acceptance is will have been included within PRINCE2 Product Descriptions and Work Packages setting down the exact requirements for deliverables.

The Project Approach document will have identified any legal requirements and mandatory handovers.
However, the project manager should perform a final check.

PRINCE2 Product Descriptions and Work Packages

A PRINCE2 Work Package is a work assignment given to a team manager to build one or more products. Each of those products is defined on a Product Description.
The Work Package is like an instruction pack describing exactly how products are to be returned on completion, including sign-off requirements.

PRINCE2 has all the right hooks “plumbed in” to ensure a controlled shutdown, but as I have described above, it is important for the project manager to take a proactive action with a degree of common sense, to ensure that all the loose ends have been covered, and that the project has met its full objectives.

If you want to pass your PRINCE2 Practitioner Exam at first try – then get your hands on my PRINCE2 Masterclass HERE!

PRINCE2

Introducing Sizzling PRINCE2

Introducing Sizzling PRINCE2

Okay, you heard it first here, watch out for sizzling PRINCE2. it has been eight long years since the last update to the official PRINCE2 Manual and exam syllabus, and during that time it has stood rock solid as the pinnacle of best practice project management methodologies.

PRINCE2 is recognized across the globe as the most used and applied methods for delivering successful projects. The availability of tools and schemes to help project management professionals gain exam success, fast-track their professional roles, and accelerate their careers.

There will be no PRINCE3, but the new PRINCE2 kid on the block has been thoroughly scrubbed, refined and bought bang up to date ready for its launch in the summer of 2017.

Not content with just updating the official Manual and syllabus, the owners of PRINCE2 have also given their exam philosophy and schema a tweak and polish.

If it Ain’t Broke, Don’t Try To Fix It

So, my little PRINCE2 Argonauts, what has happened over the past eight years to stir the loins of the great and good who hold the keys to the world’s most successful project management method?

As you probably already knew, since PRINCE2 is based on best practice, and feedback from the world’s community of project management practitioners has been constant, the consensus has been that the PRINCE2 house needs a thorough a spring clean.

Two of the key drivers for this is the continuing rate of change of an organization’s working environments coupled with the ongoing push to achieve better for our customers and stakeholders.

Don’t worry, the bedrock of PRINCE2, its Principles, Processes and Themes remain firmly in place. But hold hard and be prepared to see a better step-by-step flow and readability within each theme.

But it doesn’t stop there.

One of the major thrusts of the update is an increased emphasis and focus on how PRINCE2 should be tailored to meet the needs of today’s organizations and the environments that a project must plan manage and deliver within.

The new 2017 PRINCE2 Manual will not feel so isolated within its silos of chapters, as they now link very strongly back to the principles that benchmark the foundations of PRINCE2.

This has resulted in much stronger clearer links between the PRINCE2 Themes and Principles.

So, expect lots more great advice on Tailoring along with how to apply it along with many examples, with ovals of extra hints and tips. The PRINCE2 Manual is moving closer to becoming a “how to” guide and less like an academic reference.

PRINCE2 – Your Flexible Friend

Yep! The Method has always had flexibility at the heart of it, and has the plumbing already built-in to easily tailor an individual project to the needs of any company or organization sponsoring projects…

… It’s now wearing its 2017 “go-faster stripes”

The approach and application of Tailoring now runs like a greased chute throughout the new method guide – and further infects the entire methodology within the PRINCE2 update.

This sizzling update to the PRINCE2 methodology brims with increased and consistent emphasis on the application and tailoring – while keeping the universal principles of the method rock solid.

Take a bow Agile

In the past, many folks of struggled to understand how the seemingly formal PRINCE2 methods could become good bedfellows with the agile approach to project management.

To remedy this, the PRINCE2 spring clean now includes very specific help and guidance on adopting agile, and as you would expect, constant reference to the PRINCE2 Agile Manual.

Better yet, PRINCE2 includes powerful guidance on the absolute minimum use on a PRINCE2 project by carefully selecting and optimizing how the constituent parts should be tweaked to suit the size and complexity of an individual project.

Don’t panic PRINCE2 Argonauts

The friendly, loving and caring owners of PRINCE2, AXELOS, who have masterminded this important update, have allowed a crossover period to optimize the transition where both versions will be available from the mid-2017 launch, through to the end of 2017.

However, from the 1st of January 2018, the only English exams available for PRINCE2, will be based on the new PRINCE2 version.

Don’t worry, as the PRINCE2 update does not affect your existing prerequisite requirements, and for Practitioners who studied the older 2019 version, your certificates will remain valid until the end of its five-year period, when any re-certification will be based on PRINCE2.

Interestingly, AXELOS is giving more flexibility to the method used for PRINCE2 practitioners to remain current.

You can indeed, take and pass the re-certification exam as before, but the new option exists where you take an active subscription to PRINCE2 Membership for three years, and complete the required 45 CPD points within those three years.

Now this PRINCE2 Membership is a great idea and keeps practitioners updated with valuable information, and is also a nice little earner for AXELOS.

Here are the details:


AXELOS Membership equips you with a wide range of content, templates, toolkits, online resources and best practice guidance that enable you to succeed. Membership will give you access to resources that you can put to work, whatever the stage of your career.

Here are some of the goodies you can get:

  • Career development – a one-stop shop of resources to develop your skills and advance your career
  • Study guidance – exam tips and techniques to prepare you for success in your exams
  • Professional recognition – digital badges linked to your certificate and CPD
  • Practical content – implement best practice toolkits and templates to excel in your role
  • Global community – engage with professionals and develop best practices globally.

Find out more about your membership, CPD requirements and digital badges in the downloadable Membership Handbook HERE

An annual subscription costs £125 + VAT (this includes a one-off registration fee of £25).

Multi-subscription discounts are available: a second subscription costs £30 + VAT and a third subscription costs £20 + VAT.


Hit me with it Dave – what’s the skinny on the new PRINCE2 exams?

Yeah, I was coming to that – here you go:

PRINCE2 Foundation Exam Changes (2018)

The exam is now more efficient with a clearer focus on PRINCE2 core elements. These include:

  • Configuration management is not at the core of PRINCE2, and so it has been removed both from the Manual and the exams
  • Tailoring criteria have been added to the question bank specifically on what should be applied from each PRINCE2 Theme to tailor it to a specific project environment
  • Expect more emphasis on the PRINCE2 Principles and a fair share of questions to all the seven PRINCE2 Themes
  • More good news for PRINCE2 Hatchlings, the designer of the exam has been tweaked to reduce the number of negative and list questions – better yet the questions have been reduced from 75 to its just 60 questions

Now on to the PRINCE2 Practitioner Exam changes (2018) …

  • Expect greater emphasis on the ability of each candidate to apply PRINCE2 in a practical matter and optimize the value given to a project from the PRINCE2 Method
  • The Practitioner exam will now feature questions on every single part of the PRINCE2 method
  • There is less emphasis on the number of questions regarding management products
  • The Practitioner exam includes specific questions on PRINCE2 Principles – but at an application level
  • Expect to be tested on how you would apply each theme and process, including your ability to assess within A specific context that your approach is effective and fit for purpose

There has been a reduction in the amount of “additional information” included within the scenario which is great news as poor marks can often be the direct result of quickly scanning this under exam pressure.

I’ve saved the best news until last …

Those cursed assertion reason and multiple response questions have been assigned to the trash (Yippee!)
And yes, and because of that, the number of marks has been reduced to just 75.

Be assured, that you can still prepare for both the PRINCE2 Foundation and Practitioner Exams by Self-Study – such as using my world-famed PRINCE2 Masterclass – yes, I will be releasing it this year.

Not only that, any of my customers that invest in my current PRINCE2 Masterclasswill get a FREE upgrade to my new enhanced and more expensive PRINCE2 Masterclass –

so get your hands on a copy right now to lock in this deal HERE!

PRINCE2

 

The Seven PRINCE2 Principles

The Seven PRINCE2 Principles

These PRINCE2 principles are based on years of experience and lessons learned from both successful projects as well as failed projects. To conform to PRINCE2, your project MUST adhere to these principles.

The SEVEN Principles are:

  • Continued business justification
  • Learn from experience
  • Defined roles and responsibilities
  • Manage by stages
  • Manage by exception
  • Focus on products
  • Tailor to suit the project environment

Continued business justification

The justification is documented in the Business Case, and this is used to drive all decision-making processes to ensure that the project remains aligned to the business objectives, and that the benefits and Business Case is viable, desirable, and achievable.

The Business Case must be viable to start the project, and remain viable throughout. If the Business Case ceases to be viable, the project should be changed or stopped.

Learn from experience

Everyone involved in the project should proactively seek out lessons rather than waiting for someone else to provide them. The lessons are captured in the Lessons Log when starting the project to see if any could be applied.

Lessons should be included in reports and reviews including End Stage Assessments, the aim being to seek opportunities to implement improvements.

When the project closes, the Lessons Report should pass on lessons identified for the use of future projects.

Defined roles and responsibilities

All projects need resources with the right level of knowledge, skills, experience, and authority. These must be assigned required roles within the project. The Project Management Team structure must have these roles and responsibilities agreed plus a means for effective communication between them.

A project must have primary stakeholders, and all three stakeholder interests must be represented on the project:

Business sponsors – ensuring that the project provides value for money
Users – those who will use the project’s products
Suppliers – they provide the project resources including the specialist team who create the products

Manage by stages

manage by stages

A PRINCE2 project divides the project into a number of management stages – the minimum being two, the initiation stage and one delivery stage.

These stages are partitions of the project with a control/decision point at the end of each – the Project Board need to approve the next stage plan before work commences.

Shorter stages give more control, and longer stages place fewer burdens on senior management.

There is no point attempting to plan beyond the horizon, as planning effort will be wasted.

PRINCE2 achieves this by having a high-level Project Plan, and detailed Stage Plans that are created for the next stage near the end of each current stage.

The project is released to the Project Manager one stage at a time.

Focus on products

Without a product focus projects can be subjected to “scope creep”. PRINCE2 uses Product Descriptions which are created during planning. These include the quality criteria that each product must meet.

Once the products of a plan have been defined, then the activities and resources can be planned in order to create the products.

Manage by exception

Management by exception enables efficient use of senior management time by reducing their time and effort burden – while still having control by ensuring that appropriate decisions are made at the right level within the organization.

It does this by defining distinct responsibilities at different levels for directing, managing and delivering the project with accountability at each level. The situation is escalated to the next management level (up) if the tolerances are forecast to be exceeded.

These levels of authority from one management level to the next is achieved by setting appropriate tolerances (a plus/minus allowable deviation from plan).

The tolerances can be set against the six objectives and constraints for each plan. They are Time, Cost, Quality, Scope, Risk, and Benefit.

Tailor to suit the project environment

PRINCE2 is a universal project management method that can be applied to any project in any industry, organization and culture because the method is designed to be tailored.

Tailoring ensures the PRINCE2 method relates to the project environment, that the project controls are adjusted to suit the project’s scale, complexity, importance, capability and risk

Pass YOUR PRINCE2 Foundation and Practitioner Exams At First Try HERE!

PRINCE2

Wanna Get Your Hands On a Sample PRINCE2 Foundation and Practitioner Exam Paper – WITH ANSWERS? Then GO HERE!

PRINCE2 Process Overview

PRINCE2 Process Overview

I am often asked how one PRINCE2 Process “speaks” to another in terms of a PRINCE” Process Overview. My following summary will give you a new insight to each PRINCE2 Process, and how they work together:

It would be helpful if you thought of a PRINCE2 process as “Toolkits” or “Toolboxes” Each Process is used when they are needed – some once per project, some re-used several times, and one, Directing a Project, is used continuously after the completion of the starting up a project process.

Here is how the seven processes would be used in a (say), a three stage PRINCE2 project…

Note how some processes are used many times, and the differences between the Initiation Stage (creating and approving the Project Initiation Documentation) and the delivery stages (creating and approving the specialist products).

Also, that the Closing a Project process is used once within the last delivery stage, and is NOT in a stage of its own.

There are many drivers in an organization that may cause the need for change, and hence the instigation of a PRINCE2 project.

These drivers may include a new idea, a customer request, new business objectives, or the need to respond to competitive pressures, changes in legislation, the final report of a feasibility study, or even a recommendation or audit output.

Therefore, the trigger for PRINCE2 could be just about anything and in any form. This trigger is called the Project Mandate, and may take the form of a verbal instruction, the minutes from a meeting, or a direct request from senior management.

PRINCE2 Starting Up a Project Process

The Executive of the Project Board is appointed who in turn will normally appoint or recommend the Project Manager. At this point, the Project Manager will create the Daily Log, which is usually in the form of a diary.

It is used throughout the project to capture any informal issues or risks, and for the Project Manager to use to note any information that may not be captured elsewhere (such as a ‘to-do’ list)

The rest of the management team are also appointed – the Senior User role, Senior Supplier role, and Project Assurance (if separate individuals).

The information in the project mandate will almost certainly need to be further refined and this uses the PRINCE2 process Starting Up a Project to carry this out along with other activities.

The project mandate will be further refined into the Project Brief plus the creation of a Stage Plan for the Initiation stage. The Project Brief contains the Outline Business Case, the project approach and the Project Product Description.

The Project Board will now review these two key documents and make a decision on whether or not to formally start the project.

Their thinking will be “do we have a viable and worthwhile project?”

Directing a Project

This is used continually throughout the project by the Project Board, and its purpose here is to use the activity ‘authorize initiation’ activity.

Initiating a Project

If a decision by the Project Board has been made to proceed further, then this is the trigger to start the Initiation stage, where the project brief will be further refined and expanded to become the Project Initiation Documentation (PID).

The project will now be planned in detail after the various strategy documents within the PID have been determined. These are:

  • The Risk Management Approach
  • The Quality Management Approach
  • The Change Management Approach
  • The Communication Management Approach

Appropriate Project Board and project management level controls are defined, including how funding for the project is to be obtained.

The outline Business Case contained within the Project Brief is now further refined to become the detailed Business Case as part of the PID.

The initiation stage is completed once all of the information is assembled within the Project Initiation Documentation which will now need to be reviewed by the Project Board to decide whether or not to authorize the project, and to proceed into the next stage (the first delivery stage).

Also during the Initiation stage, the Managing a Stage Boundary process is used to prepare for the End Stage Assessment, including the creation of the second stage plan.

Directing a Project

This is used continually throughout the project by the Project Board, and its purpose here is to use the ‘authorize the project’ activity. It does this by approving the PID and the next Stage Plan.

The activity ‘authorizing a stage or exception plan’ within the PRINCE2 process Directing a Project is used to approve or otherwise the second Stage Plan.

Once the PID is signed off, then all remaining stages (there may only be one), need to be authorized, and the Project Board will have delegated day-to-day control to the Project Manager for each remaining stage, one at a time.

Controlling a Stage

The Project Manager will assign work to the Team Manager/Specialist team) via Work Packages and will want to ensure that their progress is in line with the approved stage plan, and that the stage forecast remains within the projects performance targets and agreed tolerances.

To assist in progress control, the Project Manager will use a set of project records (the Daily Log, Lessons Log, Issue, Risk, and Quality Registers, and Configuration Item Records).

The Project Manager will keep the Project Board informed of progress via regular Highlight Reports.

Managing Product Delivery

This is used by the Team Managers and specialists team members to execute their assigned Work Packages, keeping the Project Manager informed of progress with regular Checkpoint Reports.

This is the process where the specialist products are created, and as such will normally spend most of the project budget!

Managing a Stage Boundary

At the end of each management stage the Project Manager will use the PRINCE2 process Managing a Stage Boundary process to create the next Stage Plan, update the Project Plan and Business Case, and assess the aggregated set of risks including any current issues.

This information will be presented to the Project Board in the form of an End Stage Report, where they will need to decide what to do next.

The final delivery stage (there can be as many as the project needs, but must have a minimum of one delivery stage), is different in that although specialist products will have been created, when the final products are approved, the Project Manager will use the PRINCE2 process Closing a Project process to prepare for controlled shutdown.

Closing a Project

The evidence from this process is used by the Project Board to authorize project closure.

The main deliverables are:

  • Hand over the project products
  • Benefits Review Plan
  • End Project Report
  • Lessons Report

Use this diagram to help visualize the way that the PRINCE2 processes map onto the typical stages of a PRINCE2 project:

process_stages-1

PRINCE2 kicks off with the project “trigger” from Corporate or programme management – the Project Mandate.

  • The Starting Up a Project (SU), and Initiating a Project (IP) PRINCE2 process are both “in series” – the Management Products of each being taken to the Project Board for approval (Authorizing initiation and Authorizing a project).
  • The PRINCE2 process Managing Product Delivery, is used, along with the PID, to create the 2nd Stage Plan and End Stage Report containing the updated versions of the Project Plan, Business Case, and Risk Register
  • These Management Products are presented to the Project Board Authorizing a project), to agree that the whole project, in principle, should be agreed, and that it is sensible to invest in the 2nd Stage Plan (in the activity Authorizing a Stage or Exception Plan)
  • From there on, the “Engine Room” of PRINCE2 takes over – ONE anticlockwise revolution per Stage…SB is used the prepare for the End Stage Assessment (ESA), Directing a Project process is used to approve the Stage Plan, Sets Tolerance, and sets the frequency of each Highlight Report…
  • The PRINCE2 process Controlling a Stage (CS) authorizes Work Packages (WP), the Specialist Team then agrees them (all happens in Managing Product Delivery – MP)
  • The Specialist Team creates the Products, carries out the Quality Checks/Quality Reviews, issues Checkpoint Reports on WP progress – and eventually completes the Work Package then advising the Project Manager, who needs to agree the Work Package
  • The Project Manager “Manages by Exception”, issuing regular Highlight Reports and this continues until the last Work Package in the Stage is completed
  • This “triggers” the Project Manager to use PRINCE2 process Managing Stage Boundary (SB), create the Next Stage Plan, update the relevant documents, and present the information to the Project Board at an End Stage Assessment (ESA)

Then the whole cycle repeats… In PRINCE2, all plans are documents, and the Plans Theme and the product-based planning technique is used whenever a Project Plan, Stage Plan, optional Team Plan, and Exception Plan (if needed), are required

Whenever the Stage/Project is forecast to exceed Tolerance, the Project Manager enters it in the Issue Register, and raises an Exception Report to bring the matter to the attention of the Project Board (along with options to recover/minimize the situation)

The Project Board then makes a decision to ask for a plan on a particular option or order a premature close.

If the Project Board wants an Exception Plan, the Project Manager will use Managing s Stage Boundary to create it, and then update the remaining documents just like an End Stage Assessment.

BUT, the meeting to agree/or not, an Exception Plan is called an Exception Assessment (EXA).

Once approved, the Exception Plan replaces the original Stage Plan that would have not completed within Tolerances, and the Project Manager authorizes new/modified Work Packages against the new Stage Plan

Pass YOUR PRINCE2 Foundation and Practitioner Exams At First Try HERE!

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Wanna Get Your Hands On a Sample PRINCE2 Foundation and Practitioner Exam Paper – WITH ANSWERS? Then GO HERE!

Is PRINCE2 From Mars?

Is PRINCE2 From Mars?So, Is PRINCE2 From Mars?

Glad you asked.

A benign alien race whose technology far surpases our own, gave it to us to use for all our peaceful project endeavours ….

Errr ….No, actually

In recent years, organizations have experienced an unprecedented level of change and innovation and have become aware of the inherent risk associated with managing change in their business. To control the risks within IT Projects, Projects IN Controlled Environments was developed by the Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) back in 1989. It was intended as a UK Government standard for IT Project management.

Although PRINCE2 is a new method, it was based on a previous method called PROMPT which was developed in the 1970’s by Simpact Systems and had been adopted by the UK Government in the 1980’s.

Since its introduction, PRINCE2 has become widely adopted in both the public and private sectors and is now the de-facto standard in the UK for project management.

Today, the PRINCE2 Methodology is used in all project industries and in over 50 countries across the world.

Beam Me BabyBeam Me Up Baby …

The latest version of the PRINCE2 Method, released in 2009, has remained unchanged to the present date. This alone is a sign that it has become a mature and successful methodology.

Despite being originally developed for the IT Industry, PRINCE2 has evolved to incorporate the requirements of existing users and to enhance the methods to a generic project management best practice approach for any type of project within any environment.

PRINCE2 is a process based approach for project management providing a scalable and tailored methods for the management of all types of project. In addition to the process is, there are seven themes showing how the selected aspects of project management are applied, and provides guidance on when and how to use them.

Is PRINCE2 From Mars?PRINCE2 even has a new offspring.  It’s called PRINCE2 Agile and shows in detail how PRINCE2 projects can use the agile approach.

And no, that’s not alien either.

Boldly Go …

So if your preparation to become a PRINCE2 Practitioner Jedi Knight is giving you a headache, I have the perfect magic pill, and no, it’s not voodoo – just a simple step-by-step set of eyeball-friendly video modules with a whole host of exam tools so you get to pass at your first attempt – check out my PRINCE2 Masterclass HERE!

PRINCE2 Masterclass

 

 

Building the PRINCE2 Work Package Specialist Products – Part 2

Building the PRINCE2 Work Package Specialist ProductsBuilding the PRINCE2 Work Package Specialist Products – Part 2

The PRINCE2 Work Package – unpacked …continued

Joint agreements

These are the agreements setting down the resource and timescales for delivery of the products within the Work Package. The Team Manager must then manage the work to deliver it within these limits.

Tolerances

This is a plus and minus variation on late targets, because almost nothing ever goes exactly to plan!

Placing a plus and minus tolerance on some of these delivery requirements, notably time and cost, often makes sense. If tolerances are set to zero, then the smallest deviation needs to be escalated upwards causing an increase in bureaucracy, cost and time.

At the other extreme, if wide latitudes are given for the requirements of a product, then once complete it may be unacceptable to the customer or users, and again extra to spent some time will be used for rework.

It makes sense therefore to set tolerances within the “goldilocks zone” – neither too small nor too large that just right…

Constraints

The constraints section sets down anything that affects how the Team Manager and the team carries out the Work Package. In some project environments, you may have security considerations that affect, for example who can enter certain restricted areas and the time-frames when this is permitted.

Another example is if building works and taking place, limits may be placed on when builders can carry out more easy work so that the work does not interrupt the operational functioning of the business.

Reporting arrangements

Under the heading “reporting arrangements”, the PRINCE2 Manual refers to the frequency and content of Checkpoint Reports, but there may be other information required.

For example, you may specify the frequency and content of these progress reports in the Work Package and not within the Communication Management Strategy document.

Being able to adjust the content and frequency of a checkpoint report between one Work Package and another is very useful. In a very high risk Work Package, the Project Manager may require checkpoint reports every two days.

Whereas a less critical Work Package my only need a Checkpoint Report once a week. But take care here, as this heading talks about reporting arrangements and this will normally go beyond just discussing Checkpoint Reports.

Other reporting may be needed over and above the progress reports. For example, financial reporting covering when orders are being placed on what money is being committed within a financial year.

Health and safety procedures may dictate daily reports to confirm such things as fire exits or safety equipment have been checked every day.

Problem handling and escalation

If a Work Package tolerance is going to be exceeded, this is normally reported or escalated using an issue – not by issuing an exception report which is only done by the Project Manager.
However, if the Project Manager wants the Team Manager to use a different procedure, this is where such a procedure would be stated.

Extracts or references

This refers to reference is relevant to other documents, for example security requirements or safety requirements for this type of work.

More common is that this section includes project related information and two management products:

Stage plan extract

It is usually simpler for the Project Manager to give the Team Manager a copy of the whole stage plan rather than just an extract. But they may be reasons why that would not be appropriate.

As an example, here, parts of the stage plan may be confidential, or share with the Team Manager cost or pricing information. In such a case then sending sections of the stage plan makes more sense.

Where a third party is being used to execute the Work Package, then the relevant parts of the stage plan may have been created by the third-party themselves in consultation with the Project Manager of course.

In which case, only milestone information would be needed. A powerful PRINCE2 document that can be used here is the Product Checklist.

As each product is completed, which means that it has been quality-checked and signed off, the delivery dates are noted on the Product Checklist and the milestone related to that. In effect, the third-party Team Manager (who may be their Project Manager), has pre-advised the Project Manager of when to expect the completed products.

PRINCE2 Product Descriptions

PRINCE2 uses the technique of product based planning, and part of that planning is to write a Product Description to define every deliverable or products to be created within this stage, and hence this Work Package.

The Product Description describes the product together with any quality criteria it must satisfy and details of how to quality check the product. The Work Package may contain more than one product, and hence more than one Product Description will be included within this section.

In these days of electronic documents, the Work Package and the Product Descriptions, and any relevant plans may simply be a collection of files such as PDF documents.

Approval method

This defines who can approve the products within the Work Package often they have been built and tested. Sign-off is normally very simple, but can involve things like formal acceptance is and even legal acceptance as laid down within a contract.

The section also covers how the completed products in the Work Package are to be delivered and in some cases the Team Manager can simply hand them back physically or electronically to the Project Manager.

The product may need to be returned in a different way such as into an automated configuration management version control system or by delivering direct to a final location such as a customer site.

The delivery of some products may mean installing them and setting them up so that they are operational. In any case, the Project Manager needs to be notified that the product or products included in the Work Package are complete and delivered.

You remember that project communications do not have to be complex. The Team Managers can notify Work Package completion by email or even phone calls. To not make formal communications when simpler and more effective methods are available.

So what next? I’m betting that you will want to pass your PRINCE2 exams at your first try, as well as get the best training your can – so Grab my PRINCE2 Primer and Jump on over HERE!

Building the PRINCE2 Work Package Specialist Products – Part 1

Building the PRINCE2 Work Package Specialist ProductsBuilding the PRINCE2 Work Package Specialist Products – Part 1

Within PRINCE2, the specialist products are created using the Managing Product Delivery process. Here, it is the Team Manager who’s responsible for ensuring that the specialist products described within each Work Package are created within the constraints laid down.

For the Team Manager, things are very simple in terms of the PRINCE2 method as there are just three activities:

  • Accept a Work Package
  • Execute a Work Package
  • Deliver a Work Package

These are shown in the diagram below and how the Managing Product Delivery process interacts with the Project Manager within the Controlling a Stage process:

 

Building the PRINCE2 Work Package Specialist Products

A Work Package has several Headings but the concept behind it is very straightforward.

It is an instruction pack from the Project Manager to a Team Manager off king them to build the deliverable, which PRINCE2 calls a product, or perhaps more than one product if it makes sense to develop them together. The Work Package defines what products are involved and sets down any constraints and requirements for the way the work is being done.

This includes the basic obvious things like the requirements for progress reporting.

The PRINCE2 Checkpoint Report

checkpoint

Do not think of a Work Package as more documentation and bureaucracy, because if PRINCE2 if used properly, is not bureaucratic, and the Work Package is a very valuable document.

Here’s why.

If something must be built, someone must define what that “something” is and if things like progress reports are required, it was the makes sense to set down the content needed and specify the frequency required.

Work Packages contained sensibly information, but as always keep to the minimum in balance with exercising sufficient control. In a very small project with only one team, the Project Manager may also manage the team, and although you are using the Team Manager role and responsibilities, both the Project Manager and Team Manager roles are being filled by the same individual.

In such a case where just one person is filling both roles, then the interface between Controlling a Stage and Managing Product Delivery processes now become very informal.

If you can imagine for a moment that you the Project Manager, are giving yourself, the Team Manager, a Work Package, then the whole matter boils down to you agreeing what work needs to be done and managed next and simply capturing it within a Work Package.

The PRINCE2 Work Package – unpacked!

Building the PRINCE2 Work Package Specialist Products

Building the PRINCE2 Work Package Specialist Products

The content of the Work Package is logical as you can see from the diagram below, so I will just quickly run through each section of a Work Package here:

Date

This can either be the date on which the Project Manager and Team Manager agree the Work Package, or it may be the date on which the Project Manager issues a Work Package to the team for work to begin. It may be both dates stated here as they are all from different points in time.

Team or person authorized

This gives names of who will build the products contained within the Work Package and which team the Work Package is going to

Work Package description

This is an outline description of the product or products included within the Work Package.

Techniques, processes and procedures

This describes how we will build a product and in some types of project, organizations and industries, an approaches or standards may be important. Where the Work Package is being given to a third-party, you may wish to leave this section blank.

Development interfaces

The interface is mentioned here tends to be communication interfaces where the specialist team must keep in touch with another team. It may be that products being created within this Work Package are closely related to another product in a different Work Package. So, the development interfaces will be of a communication nature, such as keeping information up to date regards progress, issues, problems, change requests, risks and so forth.

If the project is using agile or scrum approaches to the development of products, then it is permitted for the scope of a time box to change if it gets delivered at the agreed point. In such a case, in such scope changes need to be swiftly communicated to the other team.

Operations and maintenance interfaces

This sets out the direct fit and function between the products in this Work Package with other products. You may need to specify a procedural interface, data interfaces, electrical interfaces, or even physical interfaces with something must physically fit dimensionally with and of the product.
Use of the same metrics could be important here such as using imperial or metric dimensions.

Configuration management requirements

If the project is being carried out within one organization, then this section need only point to those responsible for configuration management. In such a case, the tools and techniques of configuration management will already be known throughout the organization and its projects.

But this section is of importance when the project involves teams from different organizations as such teams are likely to have different configuration management procedures and product identification systems.

How version control will operate in the project is set down within the configuration management strategy, and so again, the reader of this section need only to be pointed towards that document with a precise details and approach will be recorded.

Jump on over to Part 2 HERE!

PRINCE2

Identifying PRINCE2 Risk – Part 2

Identifying PRINCE2 Risk - Part 2Identifying PRINCE2 Risk – Part 2

Differentiating between PRINCE2 risks and impacts

When I’m running risk workshops, one of the first points I clarify for those present, is toidentify PRINCE2 Risks, and then to avoid confusion between risks and impacts.
When first asking folks to identify risks, they will often say “there is a risk that the development time will take longer than planned”.

What they are describing here is not the risk itself, but rather, its impact. As such, stating the impact alone is of little use in developing risk analysis and actions. The risks are what may cause the development time to take longer than expected, and this conversation needs to happen first before considering any potential risk responses or actions to take.

Understanding this opens the way to using a very helpful risk analysis technique, which can be helpful in the systematic review of risk.

The Ishikawa or fishbone diagram

As you can see from the diagram below looks a little like the bones of a fish where the bones are the risk categories:

The Ishikawa or fishbone diagram - Identifying PRINCE2 Risk

The Ishikawa diagram can also be known as a “cause and effect diagram”. The impact is the effect, and you can systematically look at the causes, that is, the risks that may give that impact.

You can use the chosen risk categories as shown above, or develop your own depending on the nature and environment of the project.

As you can see, this is a hierarchical diagram and is helpful because it takes you systematically through every area of risk and so give structure to this part of your risk analysis. The technique encourages you to think about every area and so helps for and risks that you may not otherwise relies on there.

You can use other techniques for identifying risk in tandem with the above risk checklists and issue diagrams. There are many to consider here, but here are three:

Interviewing

Talk to the executive and other PRINCE2 project board members, team specialists, team managers, external suppliers, and project managers who have manage similar projects in the past.

The Product Flow Diagram (PFD)

It is important to exam and the Product Flow Diagram and for each product box, are asked whether anything made on wrong with its development. One red flag are any external products upon which to project depends. An external product should immediately be considered as a risk.

product-based planning - Identifying PRINCE2 Risk

The risk of an external product may be its delay, the ability of the external team to create a quality product, or if it is an existing product, then its availability. These possibilities are risks.

Prerequisites and constraints

Each of these are also potential risks. A prerequisite is something that must be in place before work can commence – such as a signed and authorized document. A constraint is an external situation that you have no control over and can often impact the scope of the project.

PRINCE2 Risk Workshop

As I’ve mentioned above, running a risk workshop is a smart and efficient way of identifying risks by inviting individuals whose knowledge skills and experience and highlight areas of risks that you may not have thought of.

Even just capturing risk areas of flipchart and potential actions to take to manage them can be very effective. A risk workshop also has a powerful advantage in that key players on the project are already aware of risk because they went to the workshop and joined in the destruction.

This helps greatly with risk ownership and is far more powerful than just reading the risks in the Risk Register later.

My last piece of advise is this, if you really want to pass your PRINCE2 Foundation and Practitioner exams at your first try – and that includes becoming a master of risk management – then you really should get your hands on my PRINCE2 Masterclass HERE!

PRINCE2

 

Identifying PRINCE2 Risk – Part 1

Identifying PRINCE2 Risk - Part 1Identifying PRINCE2 Risk – Part 1

PRINCE2 models risk management with the procedure and it starts with identifying PRINCE2 risk.

The risk procedure shown below, has four elements and because these go around in a circle, they do not function as a cycle but rather they handle all risk within the project.

The PRINCE2 cycle is shown below on the left and as you can see, goes through an identify, assess, plan, and implement cycle with the communicate step taking place in parallel with the other four.

The diagram on the right-hand side below demonstrates that although a cycle, PRINCE2 risk management consists of a Risk Analysis set of steps and then Risk Management steps, and it is these that cycle around.

If you will, view risk analysis as sizing the risks and risk management as planning the responses and monitoring their effect.

However, if you are currently preparing for the PRINCE2 Foundation or Practitioner exams, it is the diagram on the left and its terminology that should be used:

Identifying PRINCE2 Risk

Although the PRINCE2 Manual does not provide too much in the way of techniques, you can find lots to help with risk management and especially with risk identification and assessment.

The focus of this article is on identifying the risk and this is the first step and there are lots of techniques that can help with this and most of them are simple.

PRINCE2 Risk Categories and the Risk Checklists

One of the ways of categorizing PRINCE2 risk is to use the PESTLE acronym:

  • Political
  • Economic
  • Sociological
  • Technological
  • Legal
  • Environmental.

Categories are useful because they help you break the risks up a bit so you can think them through in a more structured way, and because it may help determine who should be responsible for managing them or even providing funds for that management.

You can use Risk Categories containing common risks listed under each category, shown as a Risk Checklist which is the first of the risk techniques I will describe:

The PRINCE2 Risk Checklist

Commercial risk checklists can be very helpful, but a tailored list of headings and risks that are more precisely relevant to your own organization is more valuable still.

At the beginning of each project, after doing other risk identification activities, you can use your Risk Checklist as a safety net to see whether you missed any category of risk.

Risk specialists suggest you do not use Risk Checklists first, as you are likely to zone in on the category shown and miss potential risks. So use it after brainstorming to catch any risk areas that were not thought of:

risk_categories - Identifying PRINCE2 Risk

If you have a Project Office that provides admin effort to support the organizations projects, then that is a good place to keep and organizational risk checklist. This should be constantly updated and should form part of the Lessons Learned emanating at any point from current projects.

In other words, if any of the project staff identify a new risk that might affect other projects, staff must ask the project office to add it to the list so that all future projects considered during planning. In this manner, the Risk Checklist is tools kept up to date, relevant, and extremely useful with a very small overhead required to keep it maintained.

Identifying Risk Causes, Events and Effects

For each risk, it is helpful to break it into three parts, however, they often use different approaches and use different names for this – but the PRINCE2 method uses:

  • Cause
  • Event (the risk itself
  • Effect

Although you can simply a list these for each risk, another option is to use a diagram with a different shape symbol for the cause, event and effect. An example is shown below although you may change the shapes and coloring to suit your own purposes – the objective here is to simply come up with a standard way of accurately representing the three steps:

cause_event_effect - Identifying PRINCE2 Risk

Diagrams like the one above can be helpful because it easily shows the interaction between the different elements of a risk and therefore helps you to describe and define risks more accurately.

Be aware that a cause may trigger more than one risk. In addition, you can also show chain reactions and risks with the effect of one risk is a cause of another, and the effect of that sets off yet another risk. Another aspect to consider, where drawing a diagram like the one above can be helpful, is when you must consider not only the effect of each risk if it happens on its own, but also combined effects if more than one risk happens at the same time.

This technique is powerful when running a risk workshop to help identify risks. Using a whiteboard for example, you could not only identify risks but also show series and parallel chain reactions as discussed above. This type of detail could not be fleshed out by merely capturing the description of each risk in isolation.

You will remember that PRINCE2 categorizes risks as both threats and opportunities, and again using diagrams like the one above, you could identify strategies that offset threats with opportunities. This identification and analysis should be included within the Risk Management Approach document forming part of the Project Initiation Documentation (PID), developed during the PRINCE2 process Initiating a Project.

Pass YOUR PRINCE2 Foundation and Practitioner Exams At First Try HERE!

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Wanna Get Your Hands On a Sample PRINCE2 Foundation and Practitioner Exam Paper – WITH ANSWERS? Then GO HERE!

Check out Part 2 HERE!

PRINCE2 Risk Response Quiz

PRINCE2 Risk Response QuizPRINCE2 Risk Response Quiz

In a previous article covering PRINCE2 risk responses, I reminded you that in PRINCE2, risks can be either positive or negative.

The traditional negative risk type is referred to as a threat.

The positive risk type is referred to as an opportunity.

To help remember the six risk action types for negative threats, use the acronym AS RAFT as the first letter of each action type, namely:

  • Avoid
  • Share
  • Reduce
  • Accept
  • Fallback
  • Transfer

To help remember the four risk action types for positive opportunities, use the acronym SEER as the first letter of each action type.  Remember that the Share response is used for both positive and negative risk types:

  • Share
  • Exploit
  • Enhance
  • Reject

So, now all you have to do is to remember what the letters of those acronyms stand for!

Many PRINCE2 Practitioner exam candidates get this wrong, and misinterpret the type of action that is being described within the exam paper.  The following examples will help cement the application of each risk response in your mind.

Prince Risk Response Quiz Questions

For each of the following examples, write down the type of risk response used:

PRINCE2 Example one

The news reports are saying it is increasingly likely that there will be a train strike, so you and I are flying to our destination instead to make sure that we make the meeting on time

PRINCE2 Example two

Our teams have limited experience in this highly complex area, so we are going to outsource this part of the work to an experienced company.  If that accompany its problems, they will have to find more experts at their own cost in order to deal with them

PRINCE2 Example three

We may be liable for large costs if our advice to customers is incorrect, so we are taking out professional Indemnity Insurance for all staff with direct customer contact

PRINCE2 Example four

The new headquarters building will be great, and we think it would be really good to have it includes a staff restaurant.  A restaurant should be very popular, but that is not guaranteed.  We do not have the funds for all of it, but we are inviting the catering company to set up and run a restaurant once we’ve put the basic facilities in place, and then we’ll split the profits.

PRINCE2 Example five

Our staff will have to do technical work that is beyond anything they’ve done before.  Things could go wrong, with consequent project delay, but we are sending staff on training courses to boost their knowledge and skill levels

PRINCE2 Example six

Customers are likely to buy more of Power Products, simply because ordering will be easier to the new website been developed by the project.  However, we are going to offer a 10 per cent discount for online orders compared with orders placed to other sales channels to make certain of it

PRINCE2 Example seven

The new wear and stalls some heavy goods, and we’ve had a lot of cases of back injury in the past.  We are going to put all the really heavy stuff in one’s own, with warning signs around the perimeter to remind warehouse staff to use proper lifting equipment

PRINCE2 Example eight

Bad weather could affect the launch display to the point of it being cancelled.  However, because holding the display in a large indoor arena would be very expensive, and because it will be mid-summer, when there’s less chance of rain, we have decided not to take action to change the venue and just hope that the weather is okay.

If, nearer the time, forecasts indicate a high probability of really bad weather, we may think about this again

PRINCE2 Example nine

We may face problems in the office move with the list breaking down.  That would cause severe problems with the schedule for the move.  We have arranged preventative maintenance though to have them this thoroughly checked and serviced before the move takes place.  It will not guarantee that we will avoid problems with the lives, but it will make those risks or less likely

PRINCE2 Example ten

Customers are likely to buy more of the products when they see the better information in the catalogue which is part of this market in project.  We could have an electronic catalogue with animated views of the products, which might prove sales even further.

However, we have decided not to pursue that, at least for the time being, because the time and resources needed to do it would postpone the project launch date.  We may pick up the idea in a future project

PRINCE2 Risk response quiz answers

PRINCE2 Example one.  Avoid.  This response was previously called “prevent”, which actually made the action clear.  In this case, if we go by plane, then the train cannot affect us

PRINCE2 Example two.  Transfer.  The risk impact is being passed to someone else.  Subcontracting is a typical risk transfer action

PRINCE2 Example three.  Transfer.  Another transfer, this time covering the financial impact and passing it to an insurance company – albeit at a cost of the premium.  Insurance is another typical transfer action

PRINCE2 Example four.  Share.  The investment will be shared with a partner in return for sharing the benefit, which is the profit, so it’s a share response for the opportunity-based risk

PRINCE2 Example five.  Reduce.  The training will not eliminate or avoid the risk, but it will reduce the chances of mistakes with the consequent impact of project delay

PRINCE2 Example six.  Exploit.  There is a good chance of increased sales, but we are going to try and make an increase certain with the 10% discount

PRINCE2 Example seven.  Reduce.  Staff may still live things incorrectly, but the warning signs will reduce the chance of injury, by reminding staff to use the proper equipment

PRINCE2 Example eight.  Accept.  The key words here are “we have decided not to take the action”.  It is still in the risk register however, first to explain the current in action, but also so that the risk remains under review; if circumstances change in the expectation of good weather, so might the response

PRINCE2 Example nine.  Reduce.  The list are less likely to break down with consequent impact on the schedule

PRINCE2 Example ten.  Reject.  We still hope that will realize the upside risk, but we have judged that it is not worthwhile to go chasing after it in order to make the opportunity more likely

Pass YOUR PRINCE2 Foundation and Practitioner Exams At First Try HERE!

PRINCE2

Wanna Get Your Hands On a Sample PRINCE2 Foundation and Practitioner Exam Paper – WITH ANSWERS? Then GO HERE!

 

How does the PRINCE2 Project Manager review progress?

How does the PRINCE2 Project Manager review progress?How does the PRINCE2 Project Manager review progress?

As there are a number of items to talk about in this topic and I have discussed most of them before, I will introduce most items in the form of a question and then immediately give the answer.

The Project Manager does most of their reviewing progress in the Controlling a Stage process.

During the stage, the Project Manager will hand out work in Work Packages to Team Managers or directly to the Team Members in the case of a small project. What two management products do you think the Project Manager uses as input to check on how well the Work Packages are progressing and, therefore, to see how the stage is progressing?

They use the Checkpoint Reports, which come from the Team Manager or team members, and they use the Quality Register to see that intended Quality responsible persons have signed off on the products.

As you can now see, the Quality Register acts an important extra check for the Project Manager, as perhaps the Team Manager was not 100% open in the Checkpoint Reports.

Question: Which Management Products does the Project Manager use to keep track of how the project is doing (e.g., where do they keep informal notes, issues, check on product status, quality progress, risk, etc.)?

The Project Manager uses the Daily Log, Issue Register, Product Status Account, Quality Register and Risk Register.

Question: What do you think the Project Manager uses the Daily Log for?
This is the place to record any informal information about the project (e.g., news, telephone calls, meetings, small issues, reminders, observations, tolerance levels and other such information.) The Daily Log is similar to a Daily Journal for the Project Manager.

Question: What does the Project Manager use the Issues Register for?

The Issues Register contains all formal issues raised during the project, which could be:

  • Request for Change: This happens when the clients notice something that was not in the original requirement but now wants this included (so it becomes a Request for Change)
  • Off-Specification: This happens when the supplier may not be able to complete something exactly as described in the Product Description
  • Problems and Concerns: This is the place to note any other comments, problems and concerns (for example, there is train strike on the same day as our expected demonstration for the major stakeholders, or the cost of a major component we need for the project has increase in price by 50%).

Question: What does the Project Manager use the Product Status Account for?

  • At certain times during the project the Project Manager will want to check that all products created so far in the project (1) are in the right place, (2) are the correct version, (3) have the correct identification codes attached, (4) are distributed correctly, (5) have the correct status, and so on
  • Let me give an example to explain how important this is. Consider that you are organizing an event and send out a communication 20 days beforehand that the location has changed to a new conference center due to the demand. But you are using an older registration list and will therefore only notify 70% of the registered users
  • Product Status Accounting could also show that some products have not been updated according to the plan. For example, one product was supposed to be approved 2 weeks earlier but has still not been approved. Product Status Accounting makes sure that the right products are in the right place and that the products are in line with the Project Plan.

Question: What does the Project Manager use the Quality Register for?

The Quality Register is a record of all planned and executed Quality activities. Therefore the Project Manager can see if all planned Quality activities are in line with the plan and if results are as expected or if a number of products are failing quality tests.

What does the Project Manager use the Risk Register for?

The Risk Register is a record of all identified risks and the Project Manager should review it as part of the Reviewing a Stage status in Controlling a Stage. Risk levels can change during the project. The Project Manager therefore needs to be vigilant during the project as far as Risk is concerned.

PRINCE2 – Capturing and reporting lessons

One of the principles in PRINCE2 is that the project team learns from experience. Lessons have to be sought, recorded and actioned during the project. PRINCE2 uses the word “sought” to ensure that everyone in the project checks for previous lessons. Any useful experiences are then recorded into a Lessons Log. Lessons can be about anything that could help the project.

These include how best to communicate, how to deal with a supplier, how certain documents should be tailored for this kind of project and which product specialists to get help from when doing the product breakdown structure. The Project Manager continues to add new lessons to the Lesson Log during the project.

What is a Lessons Learned report?

The Lessons Learned report is used to document lessons that might be of value to future projects. If a lesson is of value only to the current project, then it should not be included in the Lessons Learned report. A Lessons Learned report has to be created at the end of the project during the Closing a Project Process. In larger projects, a Lessons Learned report might be created during the project, for example, during the Managing a Stage Boundary Process.

PRINCE2 Reports used to Report Progress

What report does the Team Manager use to report to the Project Manager and when is the frequency decided?

The Team Manager uses the Checkpoint Report to report to the Project Manager. Information on the progress of the work done compared to the agreed Team Plan is also included in it.

The Project Manager will agree on the frequency for these reports with the Team Manager when they are accepting the Work Package.

What 3 reports are used by the Project Manager to report to the Project Board and when is the frequency decided for the most-used report?

The three reports are:

  1. Highlight Report
  2. End Stage Report
  3. End Project Report.

The PRINCE2 Highlight Report

The Highlight Report is used by the Project Manager to report on the status of the current stage compared to the Stage Plan. The important word here is ‘highlight’ as a 1- to 2-page report should be sufficient.

The Highlight Report allows the Project Board to manage by exception between each stage end, as they are aware of the tolerances agreed with the Project Manager in the Stage Plan, so the Highlight Report should report the current status of tolerances of Time, Cost, Quality, Scope, Benefits and Risk.

The frequency of the Highlight Report is first agreed in the Communication Management Strategy and this can be updated during the Managing a Stage Boundary Process.

The PRINCE2 End Stage Report

The End Stage Report is created by the Project Manager towards the end of the stage and compares the performance of the stage compared to the Stage Plan.

The End Project Report

The End Project Report is produced by the Project Manager towards the end of the project during the Closing a Project Process and is used by the Project Board to evaluate the project before they take the decision to authorize closure.

What is Raising Exceptions?

This is quite easy to understand and you will see that it is linked to the principle “Manage by Exception.” The best way to explain this is with a question, i.e., “When is an exception raised and by whom?”

An exception is raised when an agreed tolerance is exceeded or is forecast to be. You raise an exception by alerting the level above you.

The Work Package tolerances are agreed between the Team Manager and the Project Manager when the Team Manager accepts the Work Package. If the Team Manager exceeds or has been forecast to exceed a tolerance, then they raise an issue (not an exception).

They just tell the Project Manager, and the Project Manager enters the issue in the Issues Register and starts to create an Issue Report if the issue needs to be handled formally. The Team Manager does not need to create an Exception Report.

They just need to inform the Project Manager by raising an issue.

Stage Tolerances are agreed between the Project Board and Project Manager. If the stage is forecast to go out of tolerance, then the Project Manager creates an Exception Report to capture and analyze why, and then to provide this information to the Project Board.

The Exception Report can include a number of options with usually one recommend option. The Project Board can do the following:

  • Adjust the tolerance level
  • Remove the cause
  • Request more time to consider the issue
  • Request an exception plan.

Project Tolerances are set between the Corporate or Program Management and Project Board. If project tolerances are forecast to be exceeded, then the Project Board will advise the Corporate or Program Management and can provide an Exception Plan to show how the issue can be handled and to complete the current stage.

PRINCE2 Progress Responsibilities

What are Corporate or Program Management responsible for?

  • They provide the project tolerances in the project mandate
  • They make decisions on the Exception Plan when Project Tolerances are forecast to be exceeded, as the Project Board cannot do this.

What are the responsibilities of the Executive?

  • Providing stage tolerances
  • Making decisions on the Exception Plans when stage tolerances are forecast to be exceeded
  • Ensuring that progress remains consistent from a business point of view.

What are the responsibilities of the Senior User and Senior Supplier?

  • Ensuring that progress remains consistent from a user and supplier point of view

What are the responsibilities of the Project Manager?

  • Authorizing Work Packages
  • Monitoring progress of Stage Plans
  • Producing Highlight Reports, End Stage Reports, Lessons Learned reports & End Project Reports
  • Producing Exception Reports for the Project Board when the stage-level tolerances are forecast to be exceeded
  • Maintaining the project registers and logs.

What are Team Managers responsible for?

  • Agreeing on Work Packages with Project Manager
  • Producing Checkpoint Reports
  • Notifying the Project Manager of any forecast deviation from the Work Package tolerances.

What is Project Assurance responsible for?

  • Verifying the Business Case against external events and project progress
  • Confirming stage and project progress against agreed tolerances in case the Project Manager is bending the rules.

Project Support responsible for?

  • Assisting with the compilation of reports
  • Assisting the Project Manager in maintaining the Issue Register & Risk Register
  • Maintaining the Quality Register on behalf of the Project Manager. (Check that everything is going according to plan.)

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PRINCE2 Organization Theme

PRINCE2 Organization ThemePRINCE2 Organization Theme

The purpose of the organization theme is to define and establish the project’s structure of accountability and responsibilities (the who).

PRINCE2 is based on a customer/supplier environment.  It assumes that there will be a customer who will specify the desired result and probably pay for the project, and a supplier who will provide the resources and skills to deliver that result.

Every project needs affective direction, management, control and communication.  Establishing an effective project management team structure and strategy for communication at the beginning of a project, and maintaining these throughout the project life, are essential elements of a project’s success.

One of the principles of PRINCE2 is that all projects must have a defined organisational structure to unite the various parties in the common aims of the project and to enable effective project governance and decision making.

  • A successful project management team should:
  • Have business, user and supplier stakeholder representation
  • Ensure appropriate governance by defining responsibilities for directing, managing and delivering the project and clearly defining accountability at each level
  • Have reviews of the project roles throughout the project to ensure that they continue to be effective
  • Have an effective strategy to manage communication flows to and from stakeholders

 

The PRINCE2 organization defined

Project

PRINCE2 defines a project as a temporary organization that is created for the purpose of delivering one or more business products according to an agreed business case”

It needs to be flexible and is likely to require a broad base of skills for a comparatively short period of time.

Programme

A project can be run as a standalone entity or can be part of a programme of related projects.

A program is a temporary flexible organisational structure created to cordon eight, direct and oversee the implementation of a set of related projects and activities, in order to deliver outcomes and benefits related to the organization’s strategic objectives.

It is likely to have a longer life than a single project.  A project which forms part of a programme may be impacted by the program structure and reporting requirements.

Corporate organization

A project may or may not form part of the programme.  It will, however, exist within the wider context of a corporate organization.

Corporate organisational structures can vary from “traditional” functional structures, where staff are organized by type of work (for example, marketing, finance, sales etc.  Where there are clear reporting lines) corporate organizations, which work with project teams as a norm, to variations in between.

PRINCE2 Roles and jobs

In order to be flexible and meet the needs of different environments and different project sizes, PRINCE2 does not define management jobs to be allocated to people on a 1 to 1 basis.  It defines roles, each of which is defined by an associated set of responsibilities.

Roles might be shared or combined according to the project’s needs but the responsibilities must always be allocated.  When combining roles, consideration should be given to any conflicts of responsibilities, where the one person has the capacity to undertake the combined responsibilities, and whether any bottlenecks might be created as a result.

The three PRINCE2 project interests

The PRINCE2 where principle of defined roles and responsibilities states that a PRINCE2 project will always have three primary categories of stakeholder, and the interests of all three must be satisfied if a project is to be successful.

These three primary interests make up the project board. PRINCE2 recommends that for completeness the project board should include representation from each of the business, user and supplier interests at all times.

PRINCE2 business interests

The products of the project should meet a business need which would justify the investment in the project.  The project should also provide value for money.

The business viewpoint therefore should be represented to ensure that these two prerequisites exist before a project commences and remain in existence throughout the project.

The executive role is defined to look after the business interests.

PRINCE2 user interests

PRINCE2 makes a distinction between the business interests and the requirements of those who will use the projects outputs.  The use of viewpoint should represent those individuals or groups for whom some or all of the following will apply:

They will use the outputs of the project to realize the benefits after the project is complete

They will operate, maintain or support the projects outputs

The outputs of the project will impact and

The user presence is needed to specify the desired outputs and ensure that the project delivers them.  The senior user role will represent this stakeholder interest on the project board.

PRINCE2 supplier interests

The creation of the projects outputs will need resources with certain skills.  The supplier viewpoints should represents those who will provide the necessary skills and produce the project product.

The project may need to use both in house and external supplier teams to construct the project product.  The senior supplier will represent the stakeholder interest on the project board.

The level of overlap between the interests of the business, user and supplier will change according to the type of corporate organization and project.

For example, if a project uses an In-house supplier, the business and supplier interests will be more likely to have overlapping interests than if an external supplier is used.

Note the term “customer” is also used in PRINCE2, normally in the context of a commercial customer/supplier relationship.

“Customer” can usually be interpreted as a collective term for the business and user interests.  However, one example of an exception to this broader role would be where an organization is developing a new product to bring to market.

In this case, the business interest is aligned with that of a supplier and “customer” equates simply with “users”.  Where the user interests is external to the organization sponsoring the development, as in this example, it still needs to be represented in some way – perhaps by the sales/marketing function.

As well as the primary categories of business, user and supplier interests which should be represented on the project board, there will be a wider range of stakeholders which may affect, or be affected by, the project.

The stakeholders may be internal or external to the corporate organization and may support, oppose all be indifferent to the project.  Effective engagement with the stakeholders is key to a project success.

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Foundation Exam Questions Part 4

Where do you file the quality and approval records?

 

  1. Project Manager
  2. Where the Configuration Management Strategy says you should
  3. Where the Quality Management Strategy says you should
  4. On the Project Support person’s PC

 

 

Defining what a project must deliver to get acceptance is a purpose of the:

 

  1. PID
  2. PPD
  3. Outline Business case
  4. Quality Management Strategy

 

 

How is the Configuration Management Strategy used in the Closing a Project Process?

 

  1. Reviewed for its effectiveness in controlling and protecting all products
  2. Examined to confirm how all project files are to be archived
  3. Referenced to establish how all products need to be handed over into the relevant operational environment(s)
  4. Updated to incorporate any corporate or programme policies and processes that applied

 

 

  1. 1, 2, 3
  2. 1, 2, 4
  3. 1, 3, 4
  4. 2, 3, 4

 

 

Identify the missing word(s) in the following sentence. After an issue resolution has been implemented successfully, the [?] entry in the Issue Report should be updated.

 

  1. Issue type
  2. Recommendation
  3. Decision date
  4. Closure date

 

 

PRINCE2 plans are carefully designed to meet the needs of the different levels in the project organization. Why is this a benefit?

 

  1. Ensures stakeholders are properly represented
  2. Improves communication and control
  3. Ensures that one plan will meet everyone’s needs
  4. Promotes consistency of project work

 

 

Identify the missing word(s) in the following sentence. Lessons recorded during a project should be passed to either a centre of excellence or [?] if  they apply to future projects.

 

  1. Project Board
  2. Corporate or programme management
  3. Project Assurance
  4. Project Support

 

 

What is a record?

 

  1. A dynamic management product that maintains information regarding project progress
  2. A management product which documents an agreed strategy
  3. A report on the project at a certain point in time
  4. A tool for providing details on the project which, once agreed, are subject to change control.

 

 

Which concept of PRINCE2 describes the fact there might be at least two governance structures that affect a project?

 

  1. Processes
  2. Configuration management
  3. Business Case
  4. Customer/supplier environment

 

 

Which PRINCE2 principle helps to address a concern that the project team may NOT have worked on a similar project?

 

  1. Defined roles and responsibilities
  2. Learn from experience
  3. Manage by exception
  4. Focus on products

 

 

Identify the missing product in the following sentence. When developing the Configuration Management Strategy the [?] should be created and populated for the management products already produced.

 

  1. Product Status Account
  2. Initial Configuration Item Records
  3. Product Descriptions
  4. Daily Log

 

 

What is a characteristic of a project benefit?

 

  1. Is one of the project’s specialist products
  2. Is not always quantifiable
  3. Must be achieved by project closure
  4. Is based on the project’s outputs and outcomes

 

 


What is the purpose of a Product Status Account?

 

  1. Record quality issues found while checking the quality of products
  2. Show the current point of development for one or more products
  3. Define the level of configuration management needed by a project
  4. Identify the status of a Work Package assigned to a Team Manager

 

 

What does NOT distinguish a project from a programme?

 

  1. Driven by deliverables
  2. Bounded and scoped deliverables
  3. All benefits measurement included
  4. Finite start and finish

 

 

When are tolerances for a Work Package agreed?

 

  1. When accepting a Work Package
  2. As work on each product within the Work Package begins
  3. Once all products have been developed and approved
  4. When the Stage Plan is authorized by the Project Board

 

 

Which product should be used to continually maintain information regarding the progress of a product?

 

  1. Project Product Description
  2. Highlight Report
  3. Product Status Account
  4. Configuration Item Record

 

 

Can the project manager be part of the Change Authority?

 

  1. No
  2. Yes

 

 


What is a trigger to start the Closing a Project process?

 

  1. Project end approaching
  2. Request for advice
  3. Closure recommendation
  4. Stage boundary approaching

 

 

The Principles give us the guiding practices which determine whether a project is being managed using PRINCE2?

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

 

Can the project manager do Project Assurance?

 

  1. No
  2. Yes

 

 


 

PRINCE2 does not define any motivational and other interpersonal skills.

 

  1. True
  2. False
  3. Maybe

 

 

Which statements about the change theme are true?

 

  1. Change control should prevent uncontrolled changes to baselined products
  2. Baselined products require configuration management to ensure control
  3. A project will fail without good change control
  4. Changes should be assessed against baselined products
  5. a,b,d
  6. a,b,c

 

 

Which statement describes a threat to a project?

 

  1. An uncertain negative event.
  2. A given negative event
  3. An uncertain positive event

 


The outline business case is verified before initiation

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

 

Which is a time driven control?

 

  1. End Stage Report
  2. Checkpoint Report
  3. Project Brief

 

 

Details of changes made will be found in the Issue Report

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

 

A task of Product-based planning is “Create the PFD”

 

  1. True
  2. False
  3. No, its “Design the PFD”.

 

 

An Issue Report purpose is to:

 

  1. Provide verification that issue resolutions have been done.
  2. Capture information about uncertain events that may threaten the project
  3. Capture options to resolve an out of tolerance situation.

 

 

What are the three recommended types of issue?

 

  1. Off-specification, request for change and concession
  2. Off-specification, request for change and problem or concern
  3. Request for change, problem or concern, and Issue Report
  4. Request for change, Issue Report and risk

 

 

What is a purpose of the Change Authority?

 

  1. Determines the change budget for a project
  2. Assesses the impact of all requests for change
  3. Reduces the number of requests for change that need to be escalated to the Project Board
  4. Allows the Project Board to delegate the approval of all risks and Issue Reports

 

 

What is a purpose of a Configuration Item Record?

 

  1. Provides a summary of the status of all products at any one time
  2. Provides and details of important links between project products
  3. Supports the creation of the product breakdown structure
  4. Includes an analysis of any Issue Report or risk which caused the product to change

 

 

A Business Case records negative outcomes?

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

A Team Manager will find quality criteria for a product in a:

 

  1. PD
  2. PID
  3. Team Plan

 

 

Who approves the End Project Report?

 

  1. Executive
  2. Board
  3. SS
  4. SU

 

 

What is not part of an Issue Register?

 

  1. Type of issue
  2. Probability of issue occurring
  3. Owner
  4. Priority

 

The Controlling a Stage process is used to manage and control each management stage

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

 

What triggers a Stage Boundary process?

 

  1. Progress review of the stage
  2. Production of a Highlight Report
  3. An Exception report

 

 


 

Scope must be managed to ensure all know what to deliver

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

 

 

 

ANSWERS

Where do you file the quality and approval records?

 

  1. Project Manager
  2. Where the Configuration Management Strategy says you should
  3. Where the Quality Management Strategy says you should (could also be correct, and must align with the instructions in the CMS)
  4. On the Project Support person’s PC

 

 

Defining what a project must deliver to get acceptance is a purpose of the:

 

  1. PID
  2. PPD
  3. Outline Business case
  4. Quality Management Strategy

 

 

How is the Configuration Management Strategy used in the Closing a Project Process?

 

  1. Reviewed for its effectiveness in controlling and protecting all products
  2. Examined to confirm how all project files are to be archived
  3. Referenced to establish how all products need to be handed over into the relevant operational environment(s)
  4. Updated to incorporate any corporate or programme policies and processes that applied

 

 

  1. 1, 2, 3
  2. 1, 2, 4
  3. 1, 3, 4
  4. 2, 3, 4

 

 

Identify the missing word(s) in the following sentence. After an issue resolution has been implemented successfully, the [?] entry in the Issue Report should be updated.

 

  1. Issue type
  2. Recommendation
  3. Decision date
  4. Closure date

 

 

PRINCE2 plans are carefully designed to meet the needs of the different levels in the project organization. Why is this a benefit?

 

  1. Ensures stakeholders are properly represented
  2. Improves communication and control
  3. Ensures that one plan will meet everyone’s needs
  4. Promotes consistency of project work

 

 

Identify the missing word(s) in the following sentence. Lessons recorded during a project should be passed to either a centre of excellence or [?] if  they apply to future projects.

 

  1. Project Board
  2. Corporate or programme management
  3. Project Assurance
  4. Project Support

 

 

What is a record?

 

  1. A dynamic management product that maintains information regarding project progress
  2. A management product which documents an agreed strategy
  3. A report on the project at a certain point in time
  4. A tool for providing details on the project which, once agreed, are subject to change control.

 

 

Which concept of PRINCE2 describes the fact there might be at least two governance structures that affect a project?

 

  1. Processes
  2. Configuration management
  3. Business Case
  4. Customer/supplier environment

 

 


 

Which PRINCE2 principle helps to address a concern that the project team may NOT have worked on a similar project?

 

  1. Defined roles and responsibilities
  2. Learn from experience
  3. Manage by exception
  4. Focus on products

 

 

Identify the missing product in the following sentence. When developing the Configuration Management Strategy the [?] should be created and populated for the management products already produced.

 

  1. Product Status Account
  2. Initial Configuration Item Records
  3. Product Descriptions
  4. Daily Log

 

 

What is a characteristic of a project benefit?

 

  1. Is one of the project’s specialist products
  2. Is not always quantifiable
  3. Must be achieved by project closure
  4. Is based on the project’s outputs and outcomes

 

 


What is the purpose of a Product Status Account?

 

  1. Record quality issues found while checking the quality of products
  2. Show the current point of development for one or more products
  3. Define the level of configuration management needed by a project
  4. Identify the status of a Work Package assigned to a Team Manager

 

 

What does NOT distinguish a project from a programme?

 

  1. Driven by deliverables
  2. Bounded and scoped deliverables
  3. All benefits measurement included
  4. Finite start and finish

 

 

When are tolerances for a Work Package agreed?

 

  1. When accepting a Work Package
  2. As work on each product within the Work Package begins
  3. Once all products have been developed and approved
  4. When the Stage Plan is authorized by the Project Board

 

 

Which product should be used to continually maintain information regarding the progress of a product?

 

  1. Project Product Description
  2. Highlight Report
  3. Product Status Account
  4. Configuration Item Record

 

 

Can the project manager be part of the Change Authority?

 

  1. No
  2. Yes

 

 


What is a trigger to start the Closing a Project process?

 

  1. Project end approaching
  2. Request for advice
  3. Closure recommendation
  4. Stage boundary approaching

 

 

The Principles give us the guiding practices which determine whether a project is being managed using PRINCE2?

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

 


 

Can the project manager do Project Assurance?

 

  1. No
  2. Yes

 

PRINCE2 does not define any motivational and other interpersonal skills.

 

  1. True
  2. False
  3. Maybe

 

 

Which statements about the change theme are true?

 

  1. Change control should prevent uncontrolled changes to baselined products
  2. Baselined products require configuration management to ensure control
  3. A project will fail without good change control
  4. Changes should be assessed against baselined products
  5. a,b,d
  6. a,b,c

 

 

Which statement describes a threat to a project?

 

  1. An uncertain negative event
  2. A given negative event
  3. An uncertain positive event

 


The outline business case is verified before initiation

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

 

Which is a time driven control?

 

  1. End Stage Report
  2. Checkpoint Report
  3. Project Brief

 

 


 

Details of changes made will be found in the Issue Report

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

 

A task of Product-based planning is “Create the PFD”

 

  1. True
  2. False
  3. No, its “Design the PFD”.

 

 

An Issue Report purpose is to:

 

  1. Provide verification that issue resolutions have been done
  2. Capture information about uncertain events that may threaten the project
  3. Capture options to resolve an out of tolerance situation.

 

 

What are the three recommended types of issue?

 

  1. Off-specification, request for change and concession
  2. Off-specification, request for change and problem or concern
  3. Request for change, problem or concern, and Issue Report
  4. Request for change, Issue Report and risk

 

 

What is a purpose of the Change Authority?

 

  1. Determines the change budget for a project
  2. Assesses the impact of all requests for change
  3. Reduces the number of requests for change that need to be escalated to the Project Board
  4. Allows the Project Board to delegate the approval of all risks and Issue Reports

 

 

What is a purpose of a Configuration Item Record?

 

  1. Provides a summary of the status of all products at any one time
  2. Provides details of important links between project products
  3. Supports the creation of the product breakdown structure
  4. Includes an analysis of any Issue Report or risk which caused the product to change

 

A Business Case records negative outcomes?

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

A Team Manager will find quality criteria for a product in a:

 

  1. PD
  2. PID
  3. Team Plan

 

 

Who approves the End Project Report?

 

  1. Executive
  2. Board
  3. SS
  4. SU

 

 

What is not part of an Issue Register?

 

  1. Type of issue
  2. Probability of issue occurring
  3. Owner
  4. Priority

 

The Controlling a Stage process is used to manage and control each management stage

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

 

What triggers a Stage Boundary process?

 

  1. Progress review of the stage
  2. Production of a Highlight Report
  3. An Exception report

 

 

Scope must be managed to ensure all know what to deliver

 

  1. True
  2. False

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PRINCE2

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